Technology is more than gadgets and gizmos; its definition is broad and deep.
The word “technology” is derived from the Greek words “techne” (meaning “art or craft”) and “logia” (meaning “knowledge”) (which relates to study). Tecnologia is a mixture of these two words that signify “systematic therapy.”
The definition of “technology” has evolved dramatically during the last two centuries. By the 1940s, “technology” had expanded to cover the study of industrial arts and all machines, tools, instruments, weaponry, communication, and transportation technologies, as well as the skills required to construct and utilize them.
- Materials Science and Technology
Piezoelectric materials are employed in satellite micro-thrusters, and self-healing coatings are used to safeguard metal objects.
Materials technology is a broad field that entails selecting materials with qualities that best fulfill a specific application’s needs. It could also mean preserving the performance of materials throughout a machine’s lifetime by preventing fatigue, corrosion, and other issues.
Because different materials have varied qualities, combining them produces unique traits that lead to new uses.
Materials science and materials technology are inextricably linked. While the former is concerned with developing and discovering novel materials (especially solids), materials technology primarily involves the processes and testing used to determine how to improve a product.
- Mechanical Technology.
Automobiles made with mechanical robots, 3D printers, and power plants are examples of applications.
Robotic technology is concerned with the methods for assembling mechanical parts and materials to construct functioning structures and regulate or transmit motion—for example, bicycle brakes, door latches, car transmission gear systems, etc.
To build available goods and production gear, mechanical engineering engineers are expected to utilize principles from product design, material sciences, and manufacturing processes. They are generally involved in continuing industrial and automated equipment maintenance as troubleshooters.
Their work assesses stress, strain, and shearing forces in structures and deflection owing to bending, bearings, clutches, rigid body dynamics, motion, the balance of rotating masses, free vibrations, liquid flow, and thermodynamic behavior of essential fluids, among other things.
Energy, petroleum, nuclear, automotive, aerospace, manufacturing, industrial design, and product development are expandable specialties.
- Medical Technology
Examples of applications include stethoscopes, pacemakers, ventilators, computed tomography (CT) scanners, and surgical robots.
Medical technology is frequently used as science to develop remedies for diseases, injuries, and other health issues. This could include using advanced equipment to diagnose ailments, treatment procedures, and health monitoring.
Medical technology encompasses various equipment, systems, facilities, and processes (but not drugs). A medical device can be a gear, instrument, apparatus, implant, reagent, or software.
Medical machines span from syringes and sphygmomanometers (blood pressure measurement devices) to medical imaging technology (such as X-rays and MRI) to diagnose, prevent, monitor, treat, and relieve disease.
3D printing is one of the most significant technological advancements in healthcare. Specialized prostheses, splints, pieces for inert implants, and tailored replacement body parts are all made.
- Electronics Technology
Examples of applications include computers, cellphones, digital cameras, RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging), power supplies, multimeters, and interactive sensors.
Electronics are concerned with all aspects of electron emission, flow, and control in vacuum and matter. An electronic component is any physical item in a system (such as a capacitor, resistors, inductors, diodes, and transistors) that impacts electrons or their associated fields in a way that is consistent with the electronic system’s intended performance.
Different scientific and technical fields are intertwined with various parts of electronics. As a result, many electronic consumer, military, and industrial products have been developed.
Most electronic gadgets will use semiconductors to regulate electrons by 2021. In reality, these gadgets make up a significant percentage of modern technology.
Integrated silicon circuits are used in daily household goods, automobiles, and even satellites. They’re used extensively in telecommunications, signal, and data processing.
- Information and Communication Technology
LAN (Local Area Network), videotext, Teletext, Internet, wireless information transfer, and GPS are some applications.
Through a single system of cable or link, communication technology connects audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks.
Recent improvements in computing equipment, some specifically designed for network applications and data transformation from one point to another, have resulted in network enhancements.
It’s a large and ever-evolving field encompassing devices that receive, store, retrieve, analyze, and transfer data in a digital format. Radio, television, mobile phones, communication devices, satellite systems, and various other services are included.
Communication technology is an important component of IT infrastructure. It enables the interchange, transfer, and provision of data through a private or public network. It also allows for better e-resource management and, as a result, higher-quality services.
In addition, this technique is often used in space. NASA and other agencies, for example, use free-space optical communication in the area to send more data in less time.
- Nuclear Science and Technology
Radiotherapy, smoke detectors, sanitation of disposable products, and radioisotope thermal generators used in space missions are some applications.
Massive amounts of energy are released as atoms’ nuclei undergo modifications. All approaches that manipulate/control such changes in the middle of specific elements and convert them into useful energy are nuclear technology.
It is widely utilized to generate electricity in nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of boiling water to create steam and turning turbines to generate electricity.
Nuclear materials such as uranium or plutonium are used in these plants to create power through a fission reaction (in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or smaller nuclei).
Small, hard uranium pellets are used as fuel in most facilities. Seventeen thousand cubic feet of natural gas, 3 barrels of oil, and 1 tonne of coal are all contained in a single pellet the size of a fingertip. One kilogram of Uranium-235 produces about 18.5 million kilowatt-hours of heat when fissioned.
Nuclear elements can provide a reliable, long-term electricity supply in deep space missions, and atomic batteries allow spacecraft to run unsupervised for years. For example, the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft launched in 1977 to probe the solar system’s furthest reaches are still transmitting data today.
Applications include using microbes in producing organic products such as milk and bread, the extraction of metals from their ores using live organisms (bioleaching), and the development of biological weapons.
Biotechnology is the application of biological processes and living beings to develop various products. It encompasses multiple topics, including genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology.
Modern biotechnology offers ground-breaking approaches and solutions to cure severe and uncommon diseases, lessen negative environmental impacts, use cleaner energy, and make industrial manufacturing processes safer and more efficient.
- Information and Communication Technology
Multimedia conferencing, eCommerce, cloud computing, online banking, speech recognition, intrusion detection systems, and online advertising are just a few applications.
Information Technology (IT) now encompasses everything that people do with computers. While computers and computer networks are the most common topics in this discipline, it also contains other information delivery technologies such as telephones, television, and the Internet.
Today, many businesses have IT, teams, to handle computer management, database creation, and administration and guarantee the efficiency and security of company information systems. Businesses may now analyze data more precisely to uncover hidden technology trends and make more educated decisions, thanks to recent advancements in computer software.
Over the last decade, digital behemoths have focused on artificial intelligence and machine learning to enable computers to make “human-like” judgments based on real-time data. AI can now execute a wide range of activities significantly more efficiently than humans.
The blockchain is another breakthrough development, a type of database that keeps data in the most secure way possible. The security, transparency, and traceability of data transferred across a business network are all improved by blockchain technology.
Quantum computing, which uses quantum mechanics, is also included in the IT category. It is often regarded as the next major step forward in the evolution of information technology.